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Competition Rules
(Rev: Nov 2012)

1.0 PURPOSE:
The International Human Powered Vehicle Association (IHPVA) supports human-powered vehicle competition and officially recognizes and maintains records for the purpose of encouraging and promoting advancements in human-power technology.


2.0 GENERAL:
These rules shall apply to all events sanctioned by the IHPVA. The IHPVA supports competition in three categories of human power:

1. Land,
2. Water, 
3. Air vehicles.

Within these categories, competition is supported and records are maintained in the classes of competition outlined below. However, event organizers are free to organize other events and classes to which these rules may be applied. Events not covered by these rules may also be held in conjunction with sanctioned competitions. Rules for non-sanctioned events must be provided by the event organizer.

In general, it shall be the intention of the IHPVA rules to avoid defining what type of vehicle may enter individual competitions, but to let the competition itself determine which type of vehicle is superior by a normal evolutionary process. Exceptions may be made if unavoidable (e.g., arm-powered vehicles.)

The spirit of these rules is to promote design innovation by establishing only the minimum necessary regulations and to promote the goal of human powered competition. The IHPVA Records Committee reserves the right to use "spirit-of-the-rule" judgment when deciding upon unclear issues. Record attempts may be carried out by individuals or by national HPV associations and be subject to additional requirements of that association or location. The IHPVA sanctions and maintains records but assumes no responsibility for the attempts themselves.


3.0 LAND VEHICLE COMPETITIONS

3.1 Vehicle Requirements

3.1.1 Power: Vehicles must be driven solely by human power. Non-human power sources (batteries, solar cells, etc.) are permitted only for powering sensors, displays, communication equipment and lights. Control devices, cooling fans, powered aerodynamic devices, etc., may not be powered from non-human sources.

3.1.2 Energy Storage: No device which stores energy over more than one input power cycle (e.g., one leg stroke), or which releases energy under control of the operator, may be used in any event except the road race, or speed events longer than one mile. Energy storage devices are permitted in these events provided no energy is stored before the start of the event (this means absolutely no chemical, electrical, kinetic, potential, or other form of energy storage at the start.)

3.1.3 Brakes: All vehicles must have a safe means of stopping.

3.1.4 Control: All vehicles must be controlled by the rider(s), with the single exception of that necessitated by the standing start as described in section 3.2.3.1.

3.1.5 Integrity: No vehicle may discard any part after beginning motion.

3.1.6 Geometry: The vehicle geometry may not be alterable during use except for steering purposes; i.e. sails or moving control surfaces specifically intended to enhance the sailing characteristics of the vehicle are not permitted.

3.2 Events

3.2.1 Competition Classes: Competition events shall be recognized in the following classes:
 
3.2.1.1 Single Rider: The vehicle shall contain only one person.

3.2.1.2 Multiple rider: The vehicle shall contain two or more persons.

3.2.1.3 Arms only: Competitors may use arms only power in all IHPVA events; land, water and air. It will be deemed a separate event category if the rules in section 3.4 "Arm Power Rules" are met. Event officials may request separate arm power events for safety or practical purposes.

3.2.1.3.1 Physically handicapped riders: Rules to be determined. Event Directors may institute special competitions in this area.

3.2.1.4 Male and female riders: The IHPVA shall recognize separate records for males and females in all events. However, segregated competition for males and females is to be discouraged.

3.2.1.5 Junior riders: The IHPVA shall recognize separate records Juniors for records attempts, with three sub-classes:
A. Age 11 years and under.
B. Ages 12 through 14 years.
C. Ages 15 through 17 years.
Age will be determined by date of birth.The participant age is measured as of the day of the record attempt. If the attempt spans more than one calendar day, age is determined at the time when the participant first crosses the starting line.
The above sub-classes apply to male and female classes.
Records set in Junior classes will occupy higher Junior and/or adult records (excluding Masters ) if they are exceeded.

3.2.1.6 Multitrack: a multitrack vehicle is defined as a tricycle (also known as a "trike") or any other vehicle having 3 or more contact points with the ground, arranged so that the vehicle will run on 2 or more tracks with a minimum track width of 250 mm and designed so that the vehicle is continuously supported on said tracks at all times.

3.2.1.5 Organizer's option: Classes may be combined by the event organizer for a single race, but all records will be maintained in the classes indicated.

3.2.2 Types of Events: The following race events are recognized:

3.2.2.1 200 Meter Speed Trial: The winner of this event shall be the vehicle achieving the highest average speed over a 200 meter interval. A flying start from any distance is permitted, within practical limits as established by the event organizer.

3.2.2.2 500 Meter Speed Trial: Identical to 3.2.2.1 except 500 meters.

3.2.2.3 1 Kilometer Speed Trial: Identical to 3.2.2.1 except 1 kilometer.

3.2.2.4 4 Kilometer Speed Trial: Identical to 3.2.2.1 except 4 kilometers and the trial is a "standing start" event.

3.2.2.5 10 Kilometer Speed Trial: Identical to 3.2.2.1 except 10 kilometers and the trial is a "standing start" event.

3.2.2.6 1 Mile Speed Trial: Identical to 3.2.2.1 except 1 mile.

3.2.2.7 200 Meter Speed Trial, 600 meter start: The winner of this event shall be the vehicle achieving the highest average speed over a 200 meter interval. A flying start from not more than 600 meters before the 200 meter timed section is permitted.

3.2.2.8 1/4 Mile Elapsed Time: The winner of this event shall be the vehicle achieving the shortest elapsed time to travel 1/4 mile. A standing start is required.

3.2.2.9 1-Hour Time Trial:The winner of this event shall be the vehicle achieving the maximum distance in one hour. A closed course is required for this event. A standing start is required. Distance is determined by direct measurement. Alternatively, the time trial distance may be calculated from the course length and lap timings.

3.2.2.10 12-Hour Time Trial: Same as 3.2.2.9 except 12 hours.

3.2.2.11 24-Hour Time Trial: Same as 3.2.2.9 except 24 hours.

3.2.2.12 Road Race: The winner of this event shall be the first vehicle to complete a designated number of laps on a designated course. The starting requirement may be a standing start, flying start or LeMans start. The event organizer shall specify the exact course, the number of laps, and the type of start. No records shall be recognized for this event.

3.2.2.13 Practical/Commuter Vehicle: Rules to be determined.

3.2.2.14 Special Records Events: Members are encouraged to submit applications for new record categories to the IHPVA. Significant achievements will be recognized as new record classes.

3.2.2.15 100 Kilometer Speed Trial: Identical to 3.2.2.1 except 100 kilometers and the trial is a "standing start" event.

3.2.2.16 1 Mega-Meter (1,000,000 meters) Speed Trial: Identical to 3.2.2.1 except 1,000,000 meters and the trial is a "standing start" event.

3.2.3 Starts

3.2.3.1 Standing Start: A standing start is defined as an unassisted start from the stationary position, except that the vehicles which are unstable at low speeds may be assisted by one assistant for not more than 15 meters. The assistant may not push the vehicle.

3.2.3.2 Flying Start: A flying start is defined as a start where the vehicle may be assisted by accelerating before entering the timed portion of the course. Push assists by one or more persons are permitted. Pushers may not assist the vehicle for more than 15 meters.

3.2.3.3 LeMans Start: A LeMans start is defined as a start where the vehicles are parked diagonally on one side of the race course, while the racers line up on the other side of the track. At the start of the race, the riders run to their vehicles, get in, and proceed onto the course. Push assists are not permitted. However, if any vehicle is unstable at low speeds, a single assistant is permitted to stabilize the vehicle for not more than 15 meters. The same assistant may also assist the rider in getting into the vehicle, closing canopies, etc.

3.2.3.3.1 Assisted LeMans Start. An assisted LeMans start is defined to be the same as a LeMans Start, except that a single assistant is permitted to assist the rider in getting into the vehicle and getting underway.

3.2.4 Drafting: No human-powered vehicle may be assisted in any record attempt by a pacing vehicle used for the purpose of aerodynamic assistance.

3.2.5 Change of Riders: No change of riders or removal of riders is permitted during a race.

3.2.6 Passing: In multiple-vehicle races, lapped vehicles must yield right-of-way to lapping vehicles. Blocking or obstructing the race path by weaving is prohibited. Vehicles should follow a steady predictable line during a race and avoid sudden maneuvers which might cause accidents.

3.2.7 Safety Requirements: All riders shall wear helmets during all competition. Helmets must meet the standards of a nationally accredited testing facility of any IHPVA member country. The burden of proof of meeting these requirements resides with the competitor.

Vehicles may be disqualified from competition due to inadequate braking capability, lack of stability, poor visibility, presence of dangerous protrusions, or other unsafe design features. Vehicles which are deemed to be unsafe may be flagged off the course by event officials.

3.2.8 Conduct: Any competitor judged by the Event Committee to have practiced unsportsmanlike conduct during an event may be disqualified from that particular event. The Event Committee shall review available evidence before making a decision to disqualify. The decision of the Event Committee is final.

3.2.9 Illegal Substances: The competitor may be subject to tests for drugs or other substances designed to enhance athletic performance that may be defined as illegal by the International Olympic Committee at the time of the attempt. Detection of illegal substances will invalidate the attempt.

3.3 COURSE REQUIREMENTS

3.3.1 Course Flatness: Except for courses for the road race events, and the time trial events one hour and over, all courses must meet the following flatness requirement: If an imaginary line is drawn from the end of the timed portion of the event course back toward the beginning of the course but sloped upward at a slope of 2/3 percent (1 meter in 150), at no point may the vehicle course pass above this line. Curved courses may be used for any event, provided the same flatness requirement is met. The 200 meter time trap in the 200 meter speed trial events, however, must be contained in a straight section. All curved courses must be clearly marked with the limiting inside boundary. Any vehicle crossing a wheel over this boundary shall be disqualified from the run. Course distance shall be measured from the inside boundary of turns.

3.3.2 Course Measurement: In order to qualify as a record course, distances and elevation difference must be measured and certified by a registered Civil Engineer, a registered Land Surveyor, or a person with equivalent training.

3.3.3 Timing: All timing must be accomplished by automatic start and stop actuation. Timers must be certified as accurate to within 1/100 of a second in 10 minutes or 1 second per day at a temperature of 20 degrees/C, plus or minus 5 degrees/C. Certification must be by a chronographic testing service or a registered Electrical Engineer. Timing to the nearest 1/100 second is required, and timing to the nearest 1/1000 second is preferred.

3.3.4 Wind: For any run to be approved as a record, except as noted in section 3.3.4.1 below, the wind velocity in any direction must not exceed 6 (six) kilometers per hour (1.67 meters per second). Wind velocity measurement must be taken during the duration of the actual timed run at the finish of the course, at a level of 2 meters above the course surface. These restrictions apply to closed and straight courses.

3.3.4.1 Wind Restrictions for Long Duration Events: There are no wind restrictions for time trial events of one hour or longer, or for distance events of 100 km or greater, provided the event is held on a closed course and at least one full lap is completed. The geometry of vehicles competing under this rule shall be fixed: there will be no sails or moving control surfaces specifically intended to enhance the sailing characteristics of the vehicle.

3.4 ARM POWER RULES

3.4.1 Power: Power from the rider(s) to vehicle momentum shall be transmitted by way of rider(s) arm and hand movements only. Upper torso above hips may contribute such power output. No part of a rider's leg or foot shall contribute to upper body power output for gaining and maintaining vehicle momentum.

3.4.2 Control: No restrictions, but must meet all IHPVA vehicle control requirements as set forth in general rules.

3.4.3 Qualification: Any rider may compete in arms only events provided they meet all arm power rules. Rider accommodation waivers may be applied for and must be approved in advance of an attempt by the IHPVA Records Committee. The purpose of waivers is to enable a rider to compete in this class without giving them specific advantage.
3.5 SPRINT RECORDS: For speed trial records only, a mandatory back-up run that is within 5% of the speed of the record run is required within 10 days (either before or after) the record run. This back-up run is required for distances of 4,000 meters or less.

3.6 PRACTICAL/COMMUTER VEHICLE RULES: To be determined.


4.0 WATER VEHICLE COMPETITION RULES:

4.1 VEHICLE REQUIREMENTS (PURE HUMAN POWER CLASS)

4.1.1 Power: Vehicles must be driven solely by self-contained human power. Non-human power sources (batteries, solar cells, etc.) are permitted only for powering sensors, displays, communication equipment, or lights. Control devices, cooling fans, aerodynamic and hydrodynamic devices must be human powered. Some exceptions may be allowed, but must be approved in advance of any attempt by the IHPVA Records Committee. Power may not be extracted from wave energy or wind and water currents, except momentarily in such a way that the overall effect during the attempt does not constitute an advantage when compared to the same attempt without these conditions, or within the tolerances specified in Appendix B.

4.1.2 Energy Storage: In events with a flying start the accumulation of the kinetic energy of vehicle and rider(s) is permitted in accordance with rule 4.2.3.2. Other forms of energy storage are permitted provided this energy is created within the timing section of an attempt and provided its source is human power. No pre-start storage is allowed. See Appendix B and also rule 4.1.1 regarding instrument batteries.

4.1.3 Propulsion: Propulsion must be provided entirely by hydrodynamic and/or aerodynamic devices. Any type of fluid-dynamic propulsion device is allowed. Particular characterisations of propulsion, e.g. oars, propellers, paddle wheels, or those not covered by these rules (e.g. punting) may be divided into separate sub-classes. Riders may use any and all parts of their bodies for propulsion (except for the 'Arms Only' class defined in rule section 4.2.2.3.)

4.1.4 Control: Vehicle control forces must be provided by onboard rider-controlled mechanical, hydrodynamic, or aerodynamic device(s). The on-board rider(s) must control the vehicle; other person(s) or means must not control the vehicle. Auto-steering devices under the direct control of the rider are permitted.

4.1.5 Integrity: No materials may be jettisoned for aiding propulsion or lightening the craft other than unadulterated water or air collected during the attempt. The rider must ride on or in the vehicle.

4.1.6 Support: All types of devices directly or indirectly supported by the water are allowed. This includes displacement and planing craft, hydrofoils, hovercraft, and craft having moving skins or tracks. Vehicles using an "air cushion" or "ground effect" are permitted, whereas craft capable of free flying are not. Records characterised by the type of support, e.g. displacement craft, or underwater craft, are considered sub-classes (see 4.2.1.2). The rider(s) and vehicle must be able to begin and end any attempt fully afloat and essentially stationary with respect to the water. For the passage through the timing section itself, see 4.2.3.

4.1.7 Rider Attributes: Any number of active riders of either gender may power the vehicle. The gender and number of riders constitute a class distinction, e.g. single-rider, women. Those who request a class distinction for other physical attributes: youth, senior, physical size, physical disability, etc. may request such distinction from the IHPVA Records Committee. Approval must be completed prior to any record attempt.

4.2 WATERCRAFT CLASS EVENTS

4.2.1 COMPETITION CLASSES: A complete list of watercraft classes maintained, and events within those classes, are shown in Appendix A. The IHPVA’s web site at http://www.ihpva.org may contain updated Appendix information. The following class types are recognised for events:
 
4.2.1.1 Pure Human Power Class: Watercraft must meet the requirements as defined in section 4.1 to be automatically recognised as such.

4.2.1.2 Sub-Classes: Classes that do not meet the requirements of the Pure Human Power Class as defined in section 4.1 are called sub-classes. The IHPVA may record or publish achievements in sub-classes that are regarded as worthwhile. The rules governing sub-classes are the same as for the watercraft Pure Human Power Class with the exception of the particularities in question. The sub-class must be qualified by these particularities, if possible within its name.

4.2.1.3 Other Achievements in Watercraft: A record attempt, which nearly fits into an existing class but does not fulfill all requirements, may be recognised as an "outstanding achievement" or "qualified record" within the existing class, provided that the attempt’s particularity is clearly recognisable. An "outstanding achievement" or "qualified record" within an existing class may include class records maintained by other organisations.

4.2.1.4 New Classes: New classes may be started at any time but will not necessarily be maintained or published by the IHPVA until added to the class list by the IHPVA Records Committee at its discretion.

4.2.2 CLASS CATEGORIES: For the purpose of event records within the watercraft Pure Human Power Class, the following categories shall be recognised (class categories in Sub-Classes must be separately approved. See Appendix A):

4.2.2.1 Single Rider: The vehicle shall contain only one person.

4.2.2.2 Multiple Riders: The vehicle shall contain two or more persons. Multi-rider classes may be gender mixed.

4.2.2.3 Arms Only Riders: Deemed a separate category when following rules are met:

4.2.2.3.1 Power: Power from the rider(s) to vehicle momentum shall be transmitted by way of rider(s)’ arm and hand movements only. Upper torso above the hips may contribute to arm and hand power output. No part of a rider’s leg or foot shall contribute to upper body power output for gaining and maintaining vehicle momentum.

4.2.2.3.2 Control: No additional restrictions, but must meet all IHPVA vehicle control requirements as set forth in the watercraft rules.

4.2.2.3.3 Qualification: Any riders may compete in arms only events provided they meet all power rules. Riders who have disabilities that prevent them from meeting all requirements of section 4.2.2.3 may request a waiver from the IHPVA Records Committee (in advance of attempt) so they may legally compete in this category. However, such request will not be granted if doing so would give the rider(s) a significant competitive advantage over others in this class.

4.2.2.4 Male and Female Riders: Upon request, the IHPVA shall recognise separate records for male and female riders in events. However, segregated competition for male and female riders is to be discouraged. Multi-rider vehicles with both male and female riders shall have no class distinction based on gender.

4.2.3 STARTING AND FINISHING

4.2.3.1 Standing Start: The rider(s) and vehicle must be at rest and fully afloat behind the starting line when the event timing starts.

4.2.3.2 Flying Start: The vehicle may accelerate over an unlimited distance prior to entering the timed portion of the course. All watercraft momentum gained prior to the timing section must be made by human powered efforts of the rider(s) as required in other sections of these rules.

4.2.3.3 Finishing: Finishes may always be timed "flying", i.e. with the vehicle moving.

4.2.4 DRAFTING: A vehicle may not be aerodynamically or hydro-dynamically assisted by the presence or action of any other vehicle or device. It is accepted that passing vehicles may momentarily cause assistance (see section 4.2.6.)

4.2.5 CHANGE OF RIDERS): No change of rider(s) or removal of rider(s) is permitted during an event. Rider(s) may remove themselves for reason of illness or emergency and the record attempt continued if this does not result in an advantage over the normal situation. Records with defined rider changes are possible under appropriate sub-classes.

4.2.6 PASSING: In events where multiple vehicles are on a course at the same time, vehicles being overtaken from behind, such as being lapped, may not obstruct the path of others on course by weaving or deliberate obstruction of the course. Vehicles should follow a steady predictable line during an event and avoid sudden manoeuvres that might cause accidents. Event observers shall make judgments on passing disputes.

4.2.7 SAFETY REQUIREMENTS: Safety shall be paramount at all times and is the responsibility of the entrant. The observers must be satisfied that the course is safe; attempts will not be observed under unsafe course conditions or if the the competitors create unsafe conditions through their behaviour or riding style.

4.2.7.1 Personal Flotation Devices: Riders must in general carry one Personal Flotation Device (sometimes known as "life vests") on board for each person and wear them as instructed by the observers or event organiser. This requirement may be waived in closely supervised attempts or if equivalent buoyancy aids are worn. Riders are required to keep their own safety in mind and wear their life vests if there is a reason to, such as bad weather, cold water, known weaknesses of craft or rider(s), or not being able to swim. The standard and use of the flotation device must meet local legislative requirements and should reflect the conditions. People, craft, or courses with special risks should warrant the use of appropriate flotation devices and not just buoyancy aids.

4.2.7.2 Buoyancy: The vehicle must be buoyant under normal event conditions or when capsized. The event organiser may waive this requirement if they supervise each attempt closely and provide for the safety of the rider(s) and for any required recovery of the craft(s).

4.2.7.3 Additional Safety Requirements: The observers must be satisfied that the rider can exit the vehicle unassisted and has effective protection from injuries. Official observers may require additional safety equipment such as paddle(s), bailer, line, whistle, and flag. Safety equipment should be agreed upon in advance of attempt. For long distance events in open waters, additional pyrotechnic and radio means are recommended.

4.2.8 CONDUCT: In the case of record attempts carried out during race meetings or similar events, any competitor judged by the event organiser to have practiced unsportsmanlike conduct during an event may be disqualified from that particular event.

4.2.9 ILLEGAL SUBSTANCES: The competitor may be subject to tests for drugs or other substances designed to enhance athletic performance that may be defined as illegal by the International Olympic Committee at the time of the attempt. Detection of illegal substances will invalidate the attempt.

4.3 WATERCRAFT COURSE REQUIREMENTS

4.3.1 COURSE LAYOUT: The course shall be defined as the shortest possible path between the start and finish line, which may include markers that must be passed in a specified manner. A speed measurement shall be made by measuring the elapsed time over the specified distance.

4.3.2 COURSE MEASUREMENT: The distance of a course shall be measured and certified by a registered Civil Engineer, licensed Surveyor, or equivalent. Markers establishing the distance must be firmly attached to the earth, either on shore, on driven piles or by other means not subject to drift due to current or wind. The start/stop actuators or transits for timing shall be located at these positions. The measurement error must be indicated and the course lengthened by at least this error, i.e. if the measurement error is 0.1 m, the nominal 100 m course must be laid out as 100.1 m, but 100.0 m used in any further calculations for speed.

4.3.3 COURSE DEFINITION: Courses can have the same or different start and end points, but must be continuously measured, i.e. it is not permissible to consider the average of a number of runs as a record.

4.3.4 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: It must be proved plausibly that there is no net environmental power input or advantage due to potential energy difference during the attempt except for the allowable tolerances. Ways of establishing this and the currently allowable tolerances are described in Appendix B. Vehicles which do use environmental energy over the tolerated amount are considered in a sub-class of environmentally-assisted vehicles. There are no restrictions regarding altitude.

4.3.5 WATER: The water must be liquid (no ice boats) and be of a temperature and salinity as found in natural bodies of water. The depth must be sufficient that no support is derived directly or indirectly by the bottom. See Appendix B.

4.3.6 TIMING: Timing equipment must have a resolution of at least 0.1 s except for long distance events where 1 second is sufficient. Timing results must be rounded in the unfavourable direction or accepted statistical methods applied (and documented) in the case of multiple timing devices. Methods such as Video-Timing or Global Satellite Positioning are allowed if it can be shown that they are suitable, sufficiently accurate, and calibrated. Videotape documentation of events is highly recommended; see section 4.4.

4.4 DOCUMENTATION - Written documentation of a record attempt must be submitted to the IHPVA within 30 days after the attempt. This shall include:
• The date, time and location of the attempt.
• The names of the watercraft designer(s), builder(s), and rider(s) and the name(s) of the person(s) or organisation(s) applying for the record.
• Photographs of the vehicle, or acceptable drawings.
• Evidence of timer calibration and accuracy.
• Evidence of course measurement and accuracy.
• A statement that all of these regulations and conditions have been complied with, signed by the applicant and both observers.
• A record of the environmental conditions during the whole attempt:
• Speed and direction of wind
• Speed and direction of water current(s)
• Water conditions (sea state and type of water body, water depth if relevant. See Appendix B)
A videotape showing the attempt, starting procedure and compliance with these regulations and conditions is highly recommended, and may be used by the IHPVA for publicity purposes.


5.0 AIR VEHICLE COMPETITION RULES: To be determined.


6.0 OBSERVERS:

All attempts must be witnessed by at least two official observers, who must establish whether all requirements described in these regulations have been met. The observers must furthermore record all information relevant to the attempt and submit this as proof to the IHPVA when a record is claimed. This must be submitted in the English language. The observers must further be able to satisfy the IHPVA that they are sufficiently independent of the competing team and possess sufficient integrity and knowledge for the nature of the observation task required.


7.0 SANCTIONING:

The IHPVA will sanction events organized under these rules. In order for a record to be recognized, sanction must be obtained from the IHPVA prior to the event or record attempt. A completed application for event sanctioning and the sanction fee must be received by the IHPVA at least 30 days prior to the event.

While applications and fees will be accepted up to 30 days after an event, it is strongly advised that the potential applicant contact the IHPVA prior to the event as once an event has passed, it is very difficult to correct deficiencies in the attempt submission.

The IHPVA will approve records resulting from attempts that meet these rules. They may be attempted as part of a competitive event as well as a stand-alone record attempt. At least one member of the competing team must be a current member of an IHPVA member association. In order for a record to be recognised, the record must be ratified by the IHPVA Records Committee.

The event must be witnessed by an official appointed by the IHPVA - see section '6.0. OBSERVERS'. All contestants in a sanctioned event must sign a waiver releasing the IHPVA from liability for the event. Due to differences in regional law, local officials may require a liability waiver of contestants before an event proceeds. The IHPVA may, at its discretion, waive some IHPVA requirements and accept records established by other record sanctioning organisations provided vehicle and class event requirements are met.


8.0 RECORDS:

All record attempts recognized by the IHPVA must be run according to these rules. An official appointed by the IHPVA must observe the record run. The official must be in no way connected with the ownership, design or operation of the vehicle. The official must be an entirely independent observer. Documentation of the record attempt must be forwarded to the IHPVA within 30 days after the event.


9.0 RULES INTERPRETATION AND PROTESTS:

Each event organizer shall set up an event committee to interpret these rules and settle any protests. The head of the event committee shall be an IHPVA representative. Decisions of this committee in regard to the competition are final. As allowed or required by rules, observers and event organisers may warn or disqualify competitors. Any unresolved issues must be submitted in writing to the IHPVA Records Committee for interpretation and resolution. Protests concerning record attempts must be submitted in writing to the IHPVA no later than 30 days after related record(s) have been published by the IHPVA. Reasonable submissions will be reviewed and a final decision made within 120 days following receipt of the dispute. 


10.0 RULES CHANGES:

Any member of an IHPVA affiliated association may recommend a change of rule to the IHPVA Records Committee. 
Changes will become effective after approval by the IHPVA and publication of the rules. 


11.0 LAND RULE AMENDMENTS:

The IHPVA approved the following amendments in 1997 and 1998:
• The IHPVA recognizes land speed records divided into two categories: high altitude and low altitude. The division is at 700 meters above sea level.
• If the high altitude record is the fastest speed for a particular event this becomes the "official record". The IHPVA will also recognize a "low altitude record" set at or below the IHPVA established elevation above sea level. 
• If the low altitude is the fastest for an event, this becomes the "official record" and there will also be a recognized high altitude record set above the IHPVA established elevation.
If the low altitude speed is faster than the high altitude speed, then the low altitude speed is the "official record".

If an HPV at high altitude then goes faster than the "official record", the new speed becomes the "official record" and the old record set at low altitude, then becomes "the low altitude record".



Appendix A

IHPVA Watercraft Classes and Events
• 100 meter flying start speed trial - Men, single rider 
• 100 meter flying start speed trial - Women, single rider 
• 2,000 meter standing start speed trial - Men, single rider 
• 24 hour meter standing start speed trial - Men, single rider 
• 24 hour meter standing start speed trial - Multiple riders 


Appendix B

IHPVA Watercraft Environmental Tolerances and examples

Wind and Current: Attempts may be disallowed if observation notes show that wind or water currents may have contributed to an improved average course speed (inclusive of flying start run-ups) when compared with a hypothetical no-wind or no-current situation. Favourable winds and currents which result in a speed advantage of less than 1% may be tolerated if this can be adequately and accurately shown.

Measurement errors must be specified except in cases where it is clear that even large errors have no relevance.
Examples (these are not rules, but suggestions for showing their fulfillment):

Water currents:

Water surface current can easily be measured by timing and sighting a floating orange. Except near the inflow and outflow of rivers, the water current in lakes is usually negligible except for the wind-induced surface current.

Wind:

Wind strength can be measured by a variety of instruments either instantaneously or by averaging during the duration of the attempt. Accuracy is not important as long as it can be shown that there is no net power gain. For example with unstreamlined vehicles, if there is a favourable gust this can be discounted if there is at least an unfavourable gust from the opposite direction with at least the same duration.

Wind direction can be measured instantaneously by a number of devices: wind vanes, streamers, smoke, or soap bubbles. The wind direction can be considered constant if it varies only slightly during the attempt in the experience of the observers, otherwise the deviations must be recorded.

Streamers such as a simple woolen thread, smoke, etc. are extremely sensitive and can shown very low wind strengths and their direction. Some axial vane devices are very sensitive and if set up in the direction of the run will count both forward and backward, thus immediately showing the average wind component strength and direction A negative (i.e. headwind) count is sufficient evidence to prove no wind assistance at the location of the instrument provided that the true wind direction is shown to be at an angle of less than 45 degrees for completely unstreamlined craft and less than 10 degrees for highly streamlined craft or craft using air propellers. In cases of doubt it is suggested to gather sufficient measurements for the record committee to decide.

General:

What counts is the experience, integrity, and common sense of the observers. Clearly a round-course will not cancel environmental effects if currents and winds are non-uniform and happen to coincide favourably with the course, e.g. a large eddy in the same direction, or an exposed downwind leg and a sheltered upwind leg. Equally, any craft with the least sailing capabilities will gain most by traveling at right angles to the wind. Or, any craft with both air and water propellers will be capable of exploiting slight differences in wind or current in any direction.

End of "Competition Rules of the IHPVA"
Notice: This is a copy of the Rules for Web presentation only. The master and governing set is maintained by the IHPVA Records Committee.

Guide for Setting IHPVA Sanctioned Records
(formerly Official Observers Guide)
V. 1.0 (June 2008)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

I. SCOPE OF GUIDELINES

II. DEFINITIONS

III. LAND SPEED RECORDS

IV. TO BEGIN...

V. OBSERVER REQUIREMENTS

VI. INSURANCE

VII. WAIVERS

VIII. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

IX. COURSE REQUIREMENTS

X. OBSERVER COURSE RESPONSIBILITIES

XI. COURSE LAYOUT

XII. HPV INSPECTION

XIII. WIND REQUIREMENTS

XIV. TIMING AND WIND VELOCITY MEASUREMENT

XV. OBSERVATION DURING RECORD ATTEMPT

XVI. REPORTS

APPENDIX A. CURRENT WORLD RECORDS FOR LAND VEHICLES

APPENDIX B. SAMPLE SURVEYOR INSTRUCTIONS

APPENDIX C. SAMPLE REPORTS

Gray text is under review by the Rules Committee


INTRODUCTION

Being an official observer is a serious responsibility. Your first responsibility is to the athletes, designers and builders. They are putting out their maximum effort and are counting on you to know the rules, to carefully observe the event, to accurately record and to verify the results.

A simple infraction or omission can nullify their efforts and the efforts of the whole support team.

At the other end of the scale, you also need to protect previous and future record holders from inaccurate results or unfair practices of present record entrants.


I. SCOPE OF GUIDELINES

The following guidelines are intended to supplement the Competition Rules of the IHPVA (revised March 1989) for land speed records and are valid as of June 15 2008. Changes to these guidelines will be made when the IHPVA approves changes to record requirements.

In the case of conflicting procedures, the Competition Rules of the IHPVA will prevail, except where specifically noted in these guidelines. Numbers in parentheses refer to the applicable section of the Competition Rules of the IHPVA (revised March 1989).

Observer guidelines for non-land events will be added when available.


II. DEFINITIONS

Class Definitions — See 3.2.1.1 through 3.2.1.3. of Competition Rules for single rider, multiple rider and arm powered definitions.

Speed Trial Records — Records for the fastest time for a set distance. Some speed trial records are from a flying start, others are from a standing start (see list below).

Time Trial Records — Records for greatest distance traveled in a set period of time. Time trial records are from a standing start.

Start Definitions — See 3.2.3.1 (Standing Start) and 3.2.3.2 (Flying Start) of Competition Rules.

Miscellaneous — The words below are used often in these guidelines and the following definitions apply to these guidelines only:

Record Attempt — a vehicle running with the specific intent of setting or breaking one or more records.

Run — the actual attempt itself, from start to finish.

Course — The area upon which a vehicle is attempting the record. Includes both run-up distance (for flying starts) and timing traps distance.

Timing Traps — for speed trial records) the measured length between two marked points whereby the timing system records Time1 (upon the vehicle entering the trap) and Time2 (upon the vehicle exiting the trap). Speed trial records are known by the distance within the timing traps (e.g. 200 meters, 500 meters, etc.).

Closed Course — A course where the HPV travels a loop, passing by the start area one or more times. The vehicle does not need to return to the start area or complete its last lap after the conclusion of its timed event (e.g. An Hour time trial on a large circular course) Hence the total elevation gain on the course is equal to the total elevation loss..


III. LAND SPEED RECORDS

Currently the IHPVA recognizes land speed records in the following categories:

• Single Rider: Male and Single Rider, Female
• Multiple Rider: Male and Multiple Rider, Female
• Single Arm Powered: Male and Single Arm Powered, Female
• Juniors: male and female under 17 by Dec 31
*(No multiple rider, arm powered records have been submitted)

Currently the IHPVA recognizes records for the following distances and time Intervals:

• 200 meters (flying start)
• 500 meters (flying start)
• 600 meter run-up, 200 meters timed (standing start)
• 1/4 mile Elapsed Time (standing start)
• 1,000 meters (1 kilometer) (flying start)
• 1 mile (flying start)
• 3,000 meters (women, standing start)
• 4,000 meters (men, standing start)
• 10 kilometers (standing start)
• 100 kilometers (standing start)
• MegaMeter - 1,000,000 meters (standing start)

• One hour (standing start)
• Twelve hours (standing start)
• Twenty-four hours (standing start)
* (No six-hour records have been submitted).

As of 1998 the IHPVA recognizes the above land speed records divided into two categories: high altitude and low altitude. Currently the altitude division is at 700 meters above sea level.

Check the IHPVA website at http://www.ihpva.org or HPVA.us and check with the IHPVA rules committee for the most current record list before commencing any record attempt.

As of November 1997, the IHPVA approved the following amendments:

1. If the high altitude record is the fastest speed for a particular event this becomes the “official record”. The IHPVA will also recognize a “low altitude record” set at or below the IHPVA established elevation above sea level.

2. If the low altitude is the fastest for an event, this becomes the “official record” and there will also be a recognized high altitude record set above the IHPVA established elevation.

This means that if the low altitude speed is faster than the high altitude speed, then the low altitude speed is the “official record”. If an HPV at high altitude then goes faster than the “official record”, the new speed becomes the “official record” and the old record, if set at low altitude, becomes “the low altitude record”.

Effective November 1997, For speed trial records only, a mandatory back-up run that is within 5% of the speed of the record run is required within 10 days (either before or after) the record run. This back-up run is required for distances of 4,000 meters or less.


IV. TO BEGIN…

The first step in preparing to be an observer is to check with the IHPVA Rules and Records Committee to make sure you have the most recent version of this guide.

When the record seeker has more information about where and when the attempt will be made, the next step is for them to notify the IHPVA Rules and Records Committee Chair and IHPVA Board of Directors of the record attempt 30 days in advance (an application form may be required). This is necessary in order to

1) Confirm your position as observer,

2) Make sure the team has the appropriate permissions, and

3) Allow sufficient time to apply for insurance, if the team requires assistance with insurance.

Failure to give adequate advance notice could mean that the team is not prepared to meet all the requirements for a record.


V. OBSERVER REQUIREMENTS

A. IHPVA must appoint two official observers for any record attempt. (Note: Competition Rules say one, but at least two are needed).

B. Official observers must be a member of the IHPVA , must not be associated with any competitor/ team member or organizer, and must have some prior experience with racing HPVs. The observer must be in no way connected with the ownership, design or operation of the HPV (7.0)

C. The observers must remain impartial and ensure that all Competition Rules of the IHPVA and these procedures are followed. Any changes to procedures must be documented in writing and submitted with the Record Attempt report. Documentation should include the reason for the change and the effect (if any) on the record attempt.

Note: At a record attempt there is always some friendliness and helpfulness between the observers and the record-seeking team. However any help should absolutely stop before the record attempt begins. The observers’ full attention must be given to his/her responsibilities to ensure that the record attempt conforms to the IHPVA rules and requirements.

D. During record attempt observers must have with them a current copy of the Competition Rules of the IHPVA and these guidelines.

E. If questions arise where no rules or guidelines exist, the observer will make decisions with safety and fairness foremost in mind. Observers should confer with the chairman of the IHPVA Rules Committee when unsure of how to proceed or to verify if a variation to these guidelines is permissible.


VI. INSURANCE

Insurance is required for three purposes:

1. To protect the landowner from litigation,
2. To protect the IHPVA from litigation and
3. To protect the record seeker from litigation.

All record attempts must have liability insurance that covers the IHPVA, the landowner, and any group or organization that may be hosting the record attempt. The liability insurance should be for no less than US $1 million per record session. It is also highly desirable (but not required) that the athletes have adequate health insurance. If the record seeker crew does not have liability insurance, they should contact the HPVA in advance for current costs and insurance application procedures.

There are sources of relatively inexpensive insurance for record attempts in many countries. The HPVA has finalized an agreement in the United States with the American Bicycle Racing Association (ABR), who will provide insurance under their policy for land and water HPVs only.

If the record seeking person or team wants the ABR insurance option, at least one official observer must become an “ABR Official”, which includes paying the $20 membership fee and taking a short “open - booklet” test on ABR rules. All record setters must also be ABR members.

Note: The ABR procedures are set up for regular bike racing competitions; the HPVA has added a special Appendix for HPV racing. The only way they can insure an HPV record attempt is to treat it as if it were a regular HPV competition, with attendant fees and requirements. Please have the team bear this in mind when filling out forms and ABR applications.

The record person or team, if they want the ABR insurance option, is responsible for paying for their ABR memberships, the ABR sanction fee, and the “per-competition-day” insurance fee for the riders. They will need to contact the IHPVA for the actual cost of these items.


VII. WAIVERS

At sanctioned competitions, all contestants must sign a waiver releasing the IHPVA and the organizers from liability for the competition (6.0). This has been interpreted to include record attempts. A standard liability waiver form is available from the IHPVA.


VIII. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

1. Timer: See section 3.3.3. of Competition Rules.

2. If you are not using the standard IHPVA equipment, include a description of the timing equipment and a copy of the certificate of accuracy with the Record Attempt report.

3. Wind measurements - See section 3.3.4. of the Competition rules. Make sure there is a sturdy stand for the anemometer so that wind measurements can be taken 2 meters above the ground surface.

4. Radios (good quality, with fresh and spare batteries) or cell phones are required for communications between timing personnel and observers.

5. For time trial events, observers should each have a watch, which is synchronized with the other observers before the attempt.

6. Long tape measure. The IHPVA equipment includes a 300-foot tape measure.

7. Adhesive tape to hold down the timing tapes (duct tape works very well!).

Note: The timing equipment used by the IHPVA is available for rent for IHPVA sanctioned events. Rolls of twisted pair wire are also available. An anemometer is included with the rental of the IHPVA timing equipment. The rental for the IHPVA’s ALGE equipment is $50/day, plus shipping and insurance. Per day means “per-day-actually-used”, not from the day you receive it. Any time spent in setup and learning is free. One-way shipping is usually about $60 within the USA. Since the total value of the equipment is over US$5,000 insurance is required. Contact the Rules and Records Committee or the IHPVA Board of Directors regarding equipment rental.


IX. COURSE REQUIREMENTS

1. See sections 3.3.1 and 3.3.2 of the Competition Rules. Note: due to the high speeds in the 200 meter speed trial, curved courses (before and/or after the timing traps) can pose serious safety concerns and should be avoided if possible.

Appendix B is a sample of the wording of a surveyor’s certificate for a speed trial course.

B. Surveyor will:

1. Measure course flatness.
2. Measure course altitude above sea level.
3. Mark start line with temporary or permanent landmark.
4. Determine the distance around the track.

For tracks where the observer can see the record HPV at all times, the distance should be measured at the same line throughout the course. Preferably this should be a visible line, since the observers need to make sure the HPV does not go below that line during the attempt.

For large tracks, the distance line must be the innermost distance. For a prior hour course that was an auto-proving track with banked turns, the observers and team determined the “neutral steer” position on the turns, and had the survey based on this “line”. The intent was that “neutral steer” should give the least rolling resistance.

For speed trial records, the surveyor should mark start and finish lines with temporary or permanent landmarks for each set record distance.

For time trial records, the surveyor should mark the start line, then leave temporary or permanent landmarks at known distances on the inside shoulder of the course for later use in determining distances. This allows the observer to make the final distance measurement using a long tape measure from the nearest known distance marker. For large tracks, see “Timing and Wind Velocity Measurement” below.


X. OBSERVER COURSE RESPONSIBILITIES

1. The official observer must check for compliance to the course requirements.

2. As representatives of the IHPVA, it is the responsibility of the observers to check the course for safety hazards and to direct those responsible to either fix the problem or otherwise protect the riders from the hazard as much as practicable. The observer has the power to refuse to allow the record attempt to continue if the course is deemed unsafe. If the safety hazard is relatively minor, the observer has the option of allowing the attempt to continue by notifying the rider(s), in writing, of the safety hazard, its nature and location. Riders should then sign a waiver acknowledging they are aware of the hazard(s). This procedure should be done for the liability protection of the rider(s), the observers and the IHPVA.


XI. COURSE LAYOUT

1. The timing equipment should always be located in a position where the operator/observer can see most of the track, and not have his/her view obstructed by any spectators or crew. If necessary, have an assistant keep spectators or riders/ crew from distracting the timing personnel.

2. The timing area should not be placed where an errant rider may crash into the timing equipment.

3. The observer should lay any timing tapes carefully across the track, making sure they are straight and flat. One proven method of laying the tape is to use two continuous, overlapping layers of duct tape along the length of the timing tape (with the overlapping edge pointing in the same direction the HPV will be traveling). To avoid having the HPV or chase vehicle dislodge the timing tape, make sure that all edges of the duct tape lay flat against the road. For best results remove the timing tapes at the end of each day, and re-set them at the beginning of each record attempt day (wire can be left in place, but protect connections from moisture).

4. Timing personnel and observers need to test the system before each record attempt to make sure all connections are secure. It is important that the observers, crew and HPV do one or more complete (for long records, abbreviated) practice runs before the record attempt to make sure everyone knows his/her tasks.

5. An official observer should operate the timing system. If that is not possible, he/she should be familiar with its operation, approve the timing setup, and observe its operation during the record attempt. Needless to say, no member of the record attempt crew should operate the timing system.

6. All record attempts must be on a course that is closed (at least during the duration of the record attempt) to all motor or cross traffic.


XII. HPV INSPECTION

Official observers will provide a written verification of the following:

1. Rider/Team

The observer will verify that each HPV owner or manager and each rider have signed all appropriate waivers and is a current member of the IHPVA (for insurance purposes). Observer will also inspect and verify that the proper approvals, proof of insurance, permission to use course, surveyor’s reports, etc. have been collected (see “Report” below).

2. Power, Energy Storage, Brakes And Controls

Verify HPV complies with sections 3.1.1. through 3.1.4 of the Competition Rules.

3. Helmets

Each rider must present his/her Snell-approved helmet for inspection (3.2.7). Helmets must not have been altered in a way that decreases protection.

Modification To Helmet Rule — The Competition Rules of the IHPVA state that only a Snell-approved helmet can be worn, however it is well-known that currently the Snell certification is not the sole valid helmet certification. Because the competition rules have not yet been revised to update the helmet rule, in practice the Records Committee will accept the following rule modification:

Helmets can be either Snell or ANSI-approved helmets, or must have passed a National Certification test in the country of the rider. Helmets must not have been altered in any way that decreases protection. An approved helmet must be worn during the entire record attempt and any time the bike is being ridden.

4. Oxygen

A ruling was made at the time of the Colorado Speed Challenge (1993) regarding the use of bottled oxygen. The problem was that in its unused form oxygen is stored energy, yet when breathed it becomes normal allowable “fuel” for the rider. It was ruled that the rider could breathe bottled oxygen while sitting stationary inside the fairing as long as the mask was held tightly against his face so that oxygen was not released into the fairing or any container inside the fairing. Before the rider was taped or secured inside the fairing, the oxygen mask had to be removed (the bottle was always outside the fairing). This required that an observer monitor the oxygen mask at all times during this procedure.

5. Disqualification

HPVs may be disqualified due to inadequate braking capability, lack of stability, poor visibility, presence of dangerous protrusions, or other unsafe design features. (3.2.7) HPVs deemed to be unsafe may be modified and re-inspected after safety modifications are complete. Observers should document the re-inspection.


XIII. WIND REQUIREMENTS

See section 3.3.4 of Competition rules. These restrictions apply to closed as well as straight courses. (3.3.4)

Explanation: Wind can aid an HPV by providing thrust in the direction of travel, especially if the HPV is designed to take advantage of wind. An airfoil shape in a cross wind can act like a sail and provide propulsion ice boats and land sailors use this effect to go over 100 mph! A tail wind can also increase speeds for HPV’s. Limiting the wind velocity minimizes the effect of the wind assisting HPVs and helps to ensure that records are broken in (relatively) comparable conditions.

Note: For many parts of the world, the least amount of wind occurs very early in the morning and again in the evening, around sunset.


XIV. TIMING AND WIND VELOCITY MEASUREMENT

Gray text is under review by the Rules Committee

A. Speed trials with a flying start from any distance (3.2.2.1 through 3.2.2.3 and 3.2.2.6).

200 m, 500 m, 1 km and 1 mile

Two timing tapes are used: the first one at the beginning of the time trap and the second, final one at the end of the timing trap where a second observer monitors the Anemometer (ANR) and the Timing system (TMP) which is connected to both tapes. An observer certifies that the start complies with the Flying Start requirements (3.2.3.2.). When the HPV crosses the first tape, the end observer hears the TMP being tripped and he starts the ANR. When the HPV crosses the second, final tape, the observer hears the TMP printing the elapsed time and he/she stops the ANR and reads the quantity of wind recorded on the ANR during the timed run. A simple calculation will show the number of meters of wind per second during the duration of the record attempt.

If the course is legal the entire distance and the timing system is capable, an HPV can attempt the 200 m, the 500 m, the 1 km and the 1mile records all on the same run. If this is desired each event will have a timing tape at the beginning of its own timed interval and the four intervals end at the same line, where there is a fifth timing tape. The observer located at the last tape starts the ANR when he hears the TMP being tripped by the HPV passing the first tape. He records the meters of wind on the ANR each time he hears the TMP being actuated by each one of the remaining tapes. Calculation is needed to find the elapsed time for each interval and then the number of meters of wind per second for each interval.

Note: If a course is being used for standing start records as well as flying start records, a start line tape will be needed when timing standing start records. See A) above and C) below.

B. Speed trials with a standing start (3.2.2.4), (3.2.2.5)

4 km, 10 km, 100 km, 1, 000 km and MegaMeter.

Two tapes are used: the first one at the start line where an observer monitors the TMP and certifies that the start complies with the Standing Start requirements (3.2.3.1). The second timing tape is at the finish line where another observer operates the ANR. The observers are linked by radio. When the HPV crosses the first tape and trips the TMP, the second observer is notified and he starts the ANR. The first observer then unplugs the TMP from the first timing tape and, and with the timer clock still running, proceeds by car (don’t cross the timing tapes with the car!) to the finish line where he/she joins the observer monitoring the ANR. The first observer then plugs the TMP to the finish timing tape. At the end of event, the total amount of wind is recorded to calculate the average wind velocity for the entire duration of the event.

C. Speed trial with a standing start (3.2.2.8) 1/4 Mile Elapsed Time

Two timing tapes are used: the first one at the start line where an observer certifies that the start complies with the Standing Start requirements (3.2.3.1); a second, final tape at the end of the 1⁄4 mile distance, where a second observer monitors the ANR and the TMP which is connected to the two tapes. When the HPV crosses the first tape, the end observer hears the TMP being tripped and he starts the ANR. When the HPV crosses the second, final tape, the observer hears the TMP printing the elapsed time and he/she stops the ANR and reads the quantity of wind on the ANR. A simple calculation will express the number of meters of wind per second during the duration of the record attempt.

D. Time trials (3.2.2.9), (3.2.2.10) and (3.2.2.11) 1 Hour, 12 Hour and 24 Hour

Only one timing tape is used, and it is connected to the TMP, which is at the starting line. All observers and assistants first synchronize watches. The first observer certifies that the start complies with the Standing Start requirements (3.2.2.1). A second observer operates the ANR. When the HPV crosses the starting line, the TMP is actuated and the second observer is notified to start the ANR.

On the next to last lap (may be earlier on short circuits), the starting line observer disconnects the TMP from the start tape. Then he, with a flour or chalk bag and a helper with the TMP, proceeds in a chase car to follow the HPV and mark the spot attained when the time interval expired by tossing the bag. In order to do this method, the helper, who has a radio, counts down loud and clear the last twenty seconds. The observer watches the HPV so he can note its location when the helper counts down to zero...and the other observer records the amount of meters of wind when the end of the time trial is announced (in case of communication failure, he would use his synchronized watch). The chase vehicle should be driven far enough from the HPV in order not to help nor harm it (see below).

If the Time Trial takes place on a smaller track (such as a velodrome) where the HPV is in view at all times and there are numerous, accurate distance markers, the observers may fix the location of the vehicle at the end of the time trial by noting its location by its proximity to the distance markers.

Note: It is very important that the observers and any assistants practice the intended method of marking the end of the time trial!

E. Speed trial with a flying start from a given distance (3.2.2.7) 200 m time trial — 600 m start

Three timing tapes are used: the first one at the start line where an observer certifies that the start complies with the Standing Start requirements (3.2.3.1); a second tape at the beginning of the time trap and a third, final one at the end of it where a second observer monitors the anemometer (ANR) and the time meter-printer (TMP) which is connected to the last two tapes. When the HPV crosses the second tape, the end observer hears the TMP being tripped and he starts the ANR. When the HPV crosses the final, third tape, the observer hears the TMP printing the elapsed time and he/she stops the ANR and reads the quantity of wind on the ANR. A simple calculation will express the number of meters of wind per second during the timed portion of the record attempt.

TIMING NOTES

A. WIND VELOCITY CALCULATION — Average wind speed in meters per second = Total volume of air divided by the total time of run (in seconds).

B. PLACEMENT OF WIND MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT — For speed trial records, the anemometer should be placed alongside the finish line at a height 2 meters above the course. For time trial records, the observer should estimate where the existing record would be surpassed on the course and then place the anemometer where he/she estimates the finish will be. There is some leeway in exactly where the anemometer should be placed, but it should be in a location fairly representative of the wind conditions over the course as a whole and it should be positioned to measure the prevailing wind.

C. Timing equipment should record every lap time to verify lap count. This information should be kept as a printout. Timing report should also include time of day that the record attempt started and finished.

D. Timing tapes are to be held down on the course with tape in such a way that an automobile will not pick them up and destroy them. Timing tapes are fragile and must be stored rolled up in large diameter circles to prevent kinking.

E. By blending time trials timing procedures with those of speed trials with a standing start, observers can work on a run where an HPV is attempting both the 1-hour and the 100 km (or 24 hours and 1,000 km) records.

F. To make the record attempt measurement and timing as clear as possible, it is best if only one HPV is attempting a record at a time. However if necessary observers can work on a run where one HPV is attempting the 1 hour (or 24 hours) record while another HPV is attempting the 100km (or 1,000 km) record. In this case, observers should mark the printout to note each separate HPV passing over the timing tape.

G. In all cases, the timing observer must mark each timer printout with the record event type, date, time of day, HPV name, rider name, total amount of wind accumulation in meters and finally, he or she must sign the tape.

H. The IHPVA has 2 types of Anemometers. An electronic vane type (ANR), and a mechanical vane type. The mechanical type requires a separate operator to make the measurement. Traditional Anemometers measure “Meters of air” (or other length measurement) Wind speed measurement is accomplished by measuring the time that the instrument recording the flow of air through the instrument. For our events 10 seconds is used for simplicity and to capture the wind speed near when the rider is actually in the timing section.


XV. OBSERVATION DURING RECORD ATTEMPT

1. Verify that the HPV did not discard any part after beginning motion. (3.1.4) and that no change of rider or removal of riders occurred during the record attempt.

2. Verify that approved helmet is worn at all times when the HPV is being ridden.

3. Standing Start — The part of the HPV that will start the timing system must be stationary and adjacent to (not on or over) the start line, If necessary, two start line holders are allowed to steady their HPV, but they are not permitted to substantially push or power the HPV. Start line holders may not provide support for more than 15 meters (3.2.3.1).

4. Flying Start — For flying starts, push assistance by one or more persons are permitted. Pushers may not assist the HPV for more than 15 meters. (3.2.3.2)

5. For speed trial record attempts of 10 km or less, no other vehicle (motor or human-powered) is permitted near the timing traps at the same time as the record attempt. Any chase vehicle must stay behind and come no closer than 50 meters to the record HPV (in case the rider goes down, and also to prevent any possible interference with timing equipment or airflow). Chase vehicles must not cross the start or finish of the timing traps until the record attempt HPV has clearly exited the timing traps. If the chase vehicle crosses the timing traps too soon, it could potentially cause problems with the timing of the run.

6. If the timing system allows for it and the run-up distance is considerable, a second HPV can be launched as the first HPV is nearing the traps. Official observer must note this in the Record Attempt report and verify that the record HPV was not drafted by another HPV within a 100-meter separation distance. Official observers to verify that the HPV was not drafting a motorized vehicle within a 50-meter separation distance.

7. For any record attempt no HPV may be assisted in any way by a pacing vehicle used for the purpose of aerodynamic assistance. (3.2.4.)

8. Timing equipment, including trip tapes, anemometer, etc. are to remain untouched and in place until the HPV has cleared the timing area and the observer has recorded the results.


XVI. REPORTS

Record data for all attempts during the session, but submit only the record run and the back-up run (back up required for speed trials of 4km or less) to the IHPVA Records Committee. However you should retain your copies or originals of the documentation and timing printouts of all attempts in case questions arise then or in the future.

Information or documents to be supplied include:

1. Record type and whether it is a high altitude record, low altitude record, or “the record (set at low altitude)”: This latter record occurs when the low altitude record is faster/farther than the current high altitude record. List official time for speed trial records, or official distance for time trial records. Include annotated printout for verification.

2. HPV: name or identifier, picture of HPV/rider combination, describe HPV

3. Rider information: name, address, and telephone number. Include type of helmet and helmet certification. Include information on IHPVA membership.

4. Designer and builder information: name(s), address(es), telephone number(s) and e-mail (if any). Include information on IHPVA membership (membership not necessary if designer/builder is not part of record attempt).

5. Official Observers’ information: names, addresses, telephone numbers and e-mail (if any). Include information on IHPVA membership. Include the names of any other officials present (i.e., organizer, timers, national bicycle federation officials, etc.).

6. Survey information: Include official documentation of course altitude. Include maps and any pertinent data or math to establish that the course meets record requirements; attach copy of surveyor’s report or other documents for verification.

7. Include information or documents to verify timing equipment meets record requirements.

8. Date of attempt and time of day. Include start and end times whenever possible (required for records an hour or longer)

9. Wind information: include information or verification of wind measurements. List total volume of wind and the wind speed in meters per second.

10. Copy of permission to use the course and all necessary waivers and applications. Copy of insurance certificate.

11. Copy of insurance certificate.

12. Include narrative information on how the record procedure was accomplished, noting any discrepancies from these guidelines and any unusual situations/occurrences.

13. Include check or international money order for the equivalent of US$50.00 from the record person or team payable to the IHPVA. This amount covers the necessary postage and copying costs to sanction a record.

Documentation of the record attempt must be forwarded to the IHPVA Rules and Records Committee within 30 days after the attempt has taken place.



APPENDIX A CURRENT WORLD RECORDS FOR LAND VEHICLES

Please refer to the Records Page on the IHPVA.org or HPVA. us website.


APPENDIX B SAMPLE SURVEYOR INSTRUCTIONS

Surveyors Statement

The following wording is adapted from the surveyor’s letter and report for 1993 Colorado Speed Challenge. For this competition, the surveyor measured the course for all record distances of one mile or less.

This page is offered as a sample document and should be altered as necessary for the specific record attempt and location.


The course was marked with P-K nails set 1’ South of the North Shoulder line along (name of road). Points were set at the end of the 1⁄4 mile run-out area, the finish line, at 200 meters, 1⁄4 mile, 500 meters, 800 meters, 1 kilometer, 1 mile, 4 kilometers and at the beginning of the run-up area. The point for the beginning of the run-up area was chosen as close as possible on the West side of a cattle guard which the racers would probably not want to cross. The point for the end of the 1⁄4 run-out was chosen because of rough pavement just to the west of it, which could also cause difficulties to the riders.

I, (name of surveyor), measured a course along (name of road). The results of this survey are as follows:

Beginning at a point which I set for the Finish Line of all timed events, I measured to the East 200.00 meters, 1⁄4 mile, 500 meters, 800 meters, 1 kilometer, 1 mile, 4 kilometers and at the beginning of the run-up area and set points in the asphalt surface of the roadway to mark these positions, with a total length from the beginning of the run-up area to the finish line of 15,219.75 feet and a total rise of 91.44 feet. In accordance with the IHPVA instructions, several points along this line were measured and in no instance did the path rise above a line of 2/3 of 1% drawn from the point designated as the finish to the point designated as the beginning of the run-up area.

As a duly registered Professional Land Surveyor in the State of xxxxxxxx, I hereby certify that the above stated results are true and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief.


Signed:
________________________________

Title:
________________________________

Date:
________________________________


APPENDIX C SAMPLE REPORTS

Record Attempt Report — General Information

This page is offered as a sample document and should be altered as necessary for the specific record attempt and location.


Location:
name and address of facility

Elevation:
xxx.x meters above sea level

HPV/Riders:
HPV name, rider name(s)

Official Observers:
names of observers, addresses, e-mail, telephone

Surveyor:
name, address, telephone of surveyor

Timing Equipment:
Identity of equipment used.


The observers read all the information they could locate about record requirements, and to the best of their ability made sure all known rules were respected.

The track for the record attempt is a xx,xxx.xx meter describe type of track. It is the property of (name of owner). Permission to use the course was granted by (name).

The course slope is within the record requirements (see official surveyor’s report).

The track used was essentially flat, without banked corners. The facility has two tracks: alpha and bravo. The outer track, named alpha, was used for all record attempts. The track surface was bumpy from many filled and unfilled cracks, although there were no potholes. (Note: this portion of the report is only to report the current condition of the track surface. In no way should it be taken as a criticism of the track, which is a world class facility.)

The surveyor measured the entire course, and marked finish lines for a variety of distances, with a starting line always the same. For the hour record attempts the wind speed indicator was placed at 2 meters above the track at approximately 79-km from the start line. For the distance record attempts, the wind speed indicator was placed at 2 meters above the track at the finish line of the specific distance. Wind speed was determined by dividing the total amount of wind during the duration of the record attempt by the number of seconds elapsed during the record attempt.

The observers verified that each HPV had no dangerous protrusions, that the brakes worked, and that each pilot had a SNELL or ANSI-approved helmet that had not been modified (brand name). The observers further verified there were no non-human powered apparatus in the HPVs except for the battery-powered standard bicycle computer used for computing speed, cadence, distance, etc.

Insurance and waivers: The officials were verbally assured by the riders that each had adequate health and personal liability coverage. Event liability coverage was through (name). All necessary waivers were signed. The timing tapes for the speed trial distances (mile, kilometer, 500 meters, 200 meters and finish) were laid down on (date) by ____________ All distance tapes were tested and verified to be operational.

All riders were informed of the new requirement for a back-up run for speed trial records, with the back-up run to be within 5% of the new record.



Signed: ______________________________ Date: ___________________



Record Report — Specific Information

This page is offered as a sample document and should be altered as necessary for the specific record attempt and location.


RECORD ATTEMPTED:
Land, Men’s 10,000 meter standing start (single rider)

Record Run (X) Validating Run ( )

PREVIOUS RECORD:

____________________________
(Record time and rider)



DATE OF ATTEMPT:
___/___/___

HOUR OF ATTEMPT:
______ a.m./p.m.

LOCATION:
______________________________________


HPV:
_____________________
(Name/Description)

RIDER:
______________________________________

DESIGNER:
______________________________________

OFFICIAL OBSERVERS:
______________________________________

TIMING EQUIPMENT:
IHPVA ALGE timer and windspeed equipment
or __________________________________

OFFICIAL TIME FOR DISTANCE:
dd:hh:mm:ss.sss
KPH: xx.xxx
MPH: xx.xxx

OFFICIAL WIND MEASUREMENT:
xxx.xxx Meters of wind during run
yyy.yyy meters per second Wind Speed

REPORT: The attempt began at approximately xx.xx am/pm. Observer name operated the timer at the starting line while Observer name remained with the anemometer at the finish line on the back straightway. They were linked by radio.

After Rider name crossed the start line, Observer name started the anemometer upon Observer name’s signal. Observer name then disconnected the timer from the start line tape and brought it to the finish line (in a vehicle driven by Observer name) proceeding on the track in the same direction as the HPV, about two hundred meters behind. Observer name then plugged in the timer to the finish line tape at the 10,000-meter mark. The anemometer was two meters above course surface.

___________________________________________________
(Signed by all observers)


Contact: IHPVA Rules and Records Committee or
IHPVA Board of Directors

Copyright ©2008 IHPVA

Rev. June 15, 2008 [ACK]

Gray text is under review by the Rules Committee

 

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